Last Updated on September 1, 2022 by Circular Guru
What is a network interface card (NIC)? what is the function of network interface card?
A network interface card, aka known as NIC or network interface controller, is mainly a circuit board that is installed on the computer to connect to the network. It works as an essential component for the network connection of any computer.
How does having a Network Interface card work?
The network interface card is a piece of hardware (a circuit board) that can be found in a computer system after it has been set up. When trying to send data across a whole computer network, it helps to connect different kinds of networking equipment, like servers and personal computers (PCs). NIC provides a number of features like Direct Memory Access (DMA) interfaces, data transfer, partitioning, and I/O interrupts, among other things.
Network Interface Card, which is also called “Network Interface Controller,” “Network Adapter,” “Ethernet card,” “Connection card,” and “Connection card.” is another name for LAN (Local Area Network) Adapter.
A network interface card, or NIC, is a piece of hardware that lets two or more computers talk to each other over a local area network (LAN) or the Internet Protocol (IP).
The MAC address is the 48-bit serial number that is unique to the network interface card (NIC). This number is kept on the card in a memory chip called ROM. Each computer has at least one network interface card (NIC) built in so that a user can connect to the internet.
Types of Network Interface Card
There are two different kinds of Network Interface Cards. Which one is used depends on the slots on the motherboard. Below are explanations and examples of each kind:
- Internal Network Cards
- External Network Cards
Internal Network Cards: There is no need for any other network cards here because the motherboard already has a place for this card to go. This means that you don’t need any more network cards. But it needs the network cable in order to let you connect to the network.
Internal network cards, also known as NICs, have an input jack that is made to accept an Ethernet cable. Register Jack is thought to be the best way to connect to an Ethernet network, and the RJ 45 connector is the most common one to use. An Ethernet base can have either 10/100 Mbps or 1000 Mbps network cards on the inside.
Ethernet has four different rules, which are called “5-Base T, 10-Base T, 100-Base T, and 1000-Base T.”
External Network Cards: A desktop or laptop computer doesn’t have an internal network interface card (NIC) because an external network card is used outside of your computer. Both desktops and laptops have a network card that is on the outside. It doesn’t need a cable to connect to the network, and most people use it when they’re traveling because it makes wireless networking easier.
External network cards come in two different types, such as “wireless” and “USB-based.”
Wireless NIC: The wireless network card goes into a slot on the motherboard, but it doesn’t need a network cable to connect the computer to the internet. These new kinds of NIC cards are made so that they can be used to make Wi-Fi connections.
Wireless network cards have a tiny antenna built right into the card’s surface. With the help of routers and other network protocols, this antenna lets different devices talk to each other.
USB NIC: With these different kinds of network cards, a device that plugs into the USB port can be used to connect.
The function of Network Interface Card
The Network Interface Card, or NIC, does a number of things. We’ll list and talk about each of them below. –
- It acts as a translator, helping to change data into a digital signal.
- A network card provides both wired and wireless communication channels as part of its job.
- It acts as software in the middle of the computer and the data network. For example, when a user asks a question on the internet, the LAN card on the user’s computer receives the data and then sends it to the server over the internet. Lastly, the user’s system’s LAN card gets the needed data back from the internet so that the user can see it.
- The physical and data connection layers of the OSI model are both used by this network card. The physical layer is in charge of sending signals, while the network layer is responsible for moving data packets.
Working of Network Interface Card is divided into two segments, like as –
Wired Network Connectivity: In a wired network, an Ethernet cable connects each device to the network port on the motherboard. It lets you set up a connection to a hub or switch through direct. Using the MAC address, you can share information or resources.
Wireless Medium: When talking about a wireless network, the term “wireless medium” refers to the way that radio waves are used to connect different devices to the central hub or switches.
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Components of Network Interface Card
Memory: It is the most important part of the network card because it helps keep all the data safe while the communication is going on.
Connectors: In order to connect cables to an Ethernet port, you need connectors.
Processor: These processors help change all data messages into a format that makes them easier to send and receive.
Jumpers: Jumpers are used to control all kinds of communication without the need for any kind of program.
Router: giving people wireless access to the internet.
MAC Address: It is sometimes called a “Physical Network Address,” and the NIC card uses the MAC address to figure out where on the network to send data from the computer system.
Driver: The software that moves data between a computer’s operating system and its network card is very important.
LED Indicators: This LED is connected to the connections, and it lets the user know when data is being sent or when the network is being connected.
Controller: It works a lot like a small central processing unit and keeps an eye on what the network adapter is doing.
ROM Socket: This socket is set up to use a boot ROM. This not only lets diskless workstations connect to the network, but also makes the network more secure and lowers the cost of the hardware needed.