what is the function of rom (types & usage)

Last Updated on December 6, 2022 by Circular Guru

R.O.M. stands for read-only memory. It is a type of computer memory that can only be read, not written to. This makes it a perfect place to store data that needs to be accessed often or is needed for the computer to run properly.

So, today in this article, let’s learn what exactly a ROM is, its functions, its types, and its advantages. Hence, without further ado, let’s get started!

What Exactly is ROM?

ROM stands for read-only memory. It is a type of computer storage that can only be accessed and used by the system’s motherboard. Unlike RAM, which can be rewritten, ROM retains its data even when the power is turned off. This makes it ideal for storing the operating system and other essential software that needs to be accessed quickly and reliably.

what is the function of rom in computer

  • ROM stands for read-only memory and is a type of computer storage.
  • ROM is used to store programs and data that a computer needs to run, and the information cannot be changed or erased.
  • This makes ROM ideal for storing the operating system and other essential software that needs to run the computer.
  • ROM is also used to store information that does not need to be changed, such as the BIOS or other start-up files.
  • Most computers have a small amount of ROM on the motherboard, but some devices also have a removable ROM chip that can be replaced or updated.
  • While ROM is usually less expensive than other types of computer storage, it is also slower and can’t be used to store as much data as other options.
what is the function of rom

Different Types of ROM

Basically, ROM is classified into 4 different types: MROM, PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM. Let’s learn more about them in greater detail!


Masked ROM, or MROM, is a type of ROM that is programmed by a masked language. The term “masked” means that the programming instructions are hidden from view. This type of ROM is used in microcontrollers and other devices where low-cost and low-power consumption are important factors.

One advantage of MROM is that it can be programmed very quickly. In fact, it can be programmed faster than EEPROM or flash memory. This makes it ideal for applications where the code needs to be changed frequently. Another advantage is that MROM consumes very little power, which makes it ideal for battery-powered devices.

The main disadvantage of MROM is that it is not as reliable as EEPROM or flash memory. In fact, MROM has a limited number of write cycles before it fails.


PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) is a special type of memory chip that can be programmed by the user, unlike other memory chips which are factory-programmed. This makes PROM very versatile, as it can be used for a variety of purposes such as storing data or programs.

One common use for PROM is to store BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) firmware. This is the software that runs when your computer starts up, and it’s usually stored on a ROM chip on your motherboard. However, you can also store BIOS firmware on a PROM chip, which allows you to update it without having to reboot your computer.

Another use for PROM is to store data in a non-volatile form. This means that the data will not be lost when the power is turned off, unlike data stored in normal RAM chips.


EPROM, or erasable and programmable read-only memory, is a type of integrated circuit chip that can be erased and reprogrammed. This makes it possible to update the firmware or software on a device without having to replace the entire chip.

EPROMs are typically used in devices that need to be updated occasionally, such as routers, modems, and other networking equipment. They can also be used in consumer electronics devices like digital cameras and DVD players.


EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory. EEPROM is a special type of memory chip that can be erased and reprogrammed using an electronic signal. This makes EEPROM a great choice for storing data that needs to be changed frequently, such as the settings on a digital thermostat or the current time on a digital clock.

One downside of EEPROM is that it requires more power to erase and program than regular read-only memory chips. This can cause battery drains in portable devices, such as cell phones and laptop computers. Another downside is that EEPROM is more expensive than regular read-only memory chips.

Advantages of ROM

One of the main advantages of ROM is that it can hold a larger amount of data than RAM. This is due to the way ROM is constructed- with a series of memory cells that are connected in parallel. ROM can also be easily updated, which is why it is often used for firmware.

Firmware refers to the software that controls the internal workings of a device, such as a computer or a phone. Unlike RAM, which needs to be cleared before new data can be written to it, ROM can retain its data even when power is turned off.

Is RAM Better or ROM?

This is a question that has been asked for years, and the answer is not always clear. ROM is often seen as more durable and less prone to errors, while RAM is seen as faster and more versatile. However, these are generalizations and there are many factors to consider when making a decision about which type of memory to use in a system.

One important thing to consider is the volatility of the data. ROM data is static and does not change, while RAM data can be changed or updated as needed. This makes RAM better for temporary storage or for processing tasks that need to be repeated often. ROM is better for storing data that does not need to be changed often.

The cost of each type of memory also needs to be taken into account. Today, with the advent of memory devices that are both volatile and non-volatile, there is less need to choose between ROM and RAM.

More Helpful Resource

Types of supercomputer

Types of optical storage devices

Batch processing in an operating system

Computer output devices and their functions

The function of switch in networking

Types of CPU Registers

Difference between laser and inkjet printer

Conclusion: what is the function of rom

ROM is a valuable tool that helps keep your computer running smoothly. It stores important information about your computer’s hardware and software, which can help you troubleshoot problems and improve your computer’s performance. Make sure to maintain your ROM by regularly deleting unnecessary files and defragmenting your hard drive!

About Circular Guru

Hello dear, my name is Shahzadarsi I am a digital marketer, full-time blogger, freelancer, a copywriter with SEO expertise. I write blogs since 2019 on jobs, home improvement, digital marketing, etc niche.